FAQ - Common Terms - Overviews

Discussion in 'MMA University' started by Clint, Aug 11, 2009.

  1. Clint

    Clint Administrator Staff Member


    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport that allows a wide variety of fighting techniques, from a mixture of martial arts traditions and non-traditions, to be used in competitions. The rules allow the use of striking and grappling techniques, both while standing and on the ground. Such competitions allow martial artists of different backgrounds to compete.

    Modern mixed martial arts competition emerged in American popular culture in 1993 with the founding of the Ultimate Fighting Championship, and enhanced by Japanese with their Pride Fighting Championships, from 1997 to 2006, exposing the world of MMA to the world. Originally organized with the intention of finding the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat situations, competitors of various arts were pitted against one another with minimal rules for safety. In the following decade, MMA promoters adopted many additional rules aimed at increasing safety for competitors and to promote mainstream acceptance of the sport. The name mixed martial arts was coined by one of the developers of these rules, Jeff Blatnick, a former Greco-Roman wrestler and Olympic gold medalist. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with pay per view reach rivaling boxing and professional wrestling.

    Short History
    The history of modern MMA competition can be traced to mixed style contests throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s; the Gracie family's vale tudo martial arts tournaments in Brazil starting in the 1920s; and early mixed martial arts matches (known as Kakutougi in Japan) hosted by Antonio Inoki in Japan in the 1970s. On May 12, 1991, professional kickboxer, Anthony Maness fought pro wrestler, Jamie Dundee in a "no holds barred" event. The sport gained international exposure and widespread publicity in the United States in 1993, when Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter Royce Gracie handily won the first Ultimate Fighting Championship tournament, subduing three challengers in a total of just five minutes, sparking a revolution in the martial arts. Meanwhile in Japan the continued interest in the sport resulted in the creation of the Pride Fighting Championships in 1997.

    The movement that led to the creation of the UFC, and Pride was rooted in two interconnected subcultures. First were the vale tudo events in Brazil, followed by the Japanese shoot wrestling shows. Vale tudo began in the 1920s with the "Gracie challenge" issued by Carlos Gracie and Hélio Gracie and upheld later on by descendants of the Gracie family. In Japan in the 1970s, a series of mixed martial arts matches were hosted by Antonio Inoki, a former star of New Japan Pro Wrestling; this inspired the shoot-style movement in Japanese professional wrestling, which eventually led to the formation of the first mixed martial arts organizations, such as Shooto, which was formed in 1985.

    In November 2005 recognition of its effectiveness as a test came as the United States Army began to sanction mixed martial arts with the first annual Army Combatives Championships held by the US Army Combatives School.

    The sport reached a new peak of popularity in North America in the December 2006 rematch between then UFC light heavyweight champion Chuck Liddell and former champion Tito Ortiz, rivaling the PPV sales of some of the biggest boxing events of all time, and helping the UFC's 2006 PPV gross surpass that of any promotion in PPV history. In 2007, Zuffa LLC, the owners of the UFC MMA promotion, bought Japanese rival MMA brand Pride FC, merging the contracted fighters under one promotion and drawing comparisons to the consolidation that occurred in other sports, such as the AFL-NFL Merger in American football.


    Common rules
    The following describes the rules common to most MMA competition today.

    Ways to victory
    * Knockout (KO): as soon as a fighter becomes unconscious due to strikes, his opponent is declared the winner. As MMA rules allow ground fighting, the fight is stopped to prevent further injury to an unconscious fighter.
    * Submission: a fighter may admit defeat during a match by:
    o a tap on the opponent's body;
    o a tap on the mat or floor;
    o verbal announcement.
    * Technical Knockout (TKO)
    o Referee Stoppage: the referee may stop a match in progress if:
    + a fighter becomes dominant to the point where the opponent is unable to intelligently defend himself from attacks, which may occur as quickly as a few seconds;
    + a fighter appears to be unconscious from a grappling hold;
    + a fighter appears to have developed significant injuries in the referee's view, such as a broken bone.
    o Doctor Stoppage: the referee will call for a time out if a fighter's ability to continue is in question as a result of apparent injuries, such as a large cut. The ring doctor will inspect the fighter and stop the match if the fighter is deemed unable to continue safely, rendering the opponent the winner. However, if the match is stopped as a result of an injury from illegal actions by the opponent, either a disqualification or no contest will be issued instead.
    o Corner stoppage: a fighter's corner men may announce defeat on the fighter's behalf by throwing in the towel during the match in progress or between rounds.
    * Decision: if the match goes the distance, then the outcome of the bout is determined by three judges. The judging criteria are organization-specific.
    * Forfeit: a fighter or his representative may forfeit a match prior to the beginning of the match, thereby losing the match.
    * Disqualification: a "warning" will be given when a fighter commits a foul or illegal action or does not follow the referee's instruction. Three warnings will result in a disqualification. Moreover, if a fighter is injured and unable to continue due to a deliberate illegal technique from his opponent, the opponent will be disqualified.
    * No Contest: in the event that both fighters commit a violation of the rules, or a fighter is unable to continue due to an injury from an accidental illegal technique, the match will be declared a "No Contest".

    * Headbutting.
    * Eye gouging.
    * Hair pulling.
    * Biting.
    * Fish-hooking.
    * Attacking the groin.
    * Strikes to the back of the head and spinal area.
    * Strikes to, or grabs of the trachea.
    * Small joint manipulation (control of three or more fingers/toes is necessary).
    * Intentionally throwing your opponent out of the ring/cage.
    * Running out of the ring/cage.
    * Purposely holding the ring ropes or cage fence.
    * Grabbing or putting a hand inside the trunks or gloves of the opponent.

    Rules variations
    Each organization determines its own rules (in accordance with government regulation). For example most US Athletic commissions ban knees and kicks to the head of a grounded opponent.
    For Individual Org Rules see:


    Organizations to Watch and How to watch them
    Ultimate Fighting Championship - PPV and SpikeTV
    The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is a U.S.-based mixed martial arts (MMA) organization. Dana White serves as the president of UFC, owned by casino-moguls Frank and Lorenzo Fertitta. Zuffa, LLC, headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada, owns and operates the UFC.
    Live PPV Events - PPV
    Ultimate Fight Night Events - SpikeTV
    The Ultimate Fighter Reality TV series - SpikeTV
    Other Programming - SpikeTV

    World Extreme Cagefighting - Versus
    World Extreme Cagefighting (WEC) is an American mixed martial arts (MMA) promotion. It is the sister promotion to the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), both owned and produced by Zuffa, with a focus on the lighter weight classes (155, 145, 135, & 125 lbs). The WEC uses the same rules as its older and much larger sibling, and holds its matches in a smaller octagonal cage.
    Live Events - PPV

    Strikeforce - Showtime and potentially CBS
    Strikeforce is a U.S.-based mixed martial arts (MMA) and kickboxing organization based in San Jose, California. It is headed by Scott Coker and Silicon Valley Sports and Entertainment, operators of the HP Pavilion and the San Jose Sharks. Its events and fights are currently shown on HDNet as a part of HDNet Fights and Showtime. Future events are also expected to air live on CBS in 2009.
    Live Events - Showtime (CBS in future)
    Other Programming - HDNet

    DREAM - HDNet
    DREAM is a mixed martial arts organization promoted by Fighting and Entertainment Group and co-produced with the former Pride Fighting Championships executives from Dream Stage Entertainment. It is the sister promotion of K-1 kick boxing. Dream replaced FEG's previous-run mixed martial arts fight series, Hero's. The series retains many of the stylistic flourishes and personnel from Pride FC broadcasts, including fight introducer Lenne Hardt. In America, the promotion is aired on Mark Cuban's HDNet.
    Live Events (or on Tape Delay) - HDNet

    World Victory Road (also know as Sengoku) - HDNet
    World Victory Road (WVR) is a Japanese MMA promotion formed in 2008 following the purchase of Pride FC by Zuffa, the owners of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. It operates in conjunction the Japan Mixed Martial Arts Federation (JMM). It is broadcast on Fuji TV and PPV in Japan, and on HDNet in USA.
    Live Events (sometimes tape delayed) - HDNet


    How to Learn About the Techniques
    The best way to learn these techniques are to go out and train in the sports. If that is not possible then at least study the techniques either via a book, video or the internet. Here are some links to good places to start your research.
    Brazilian Jui jitsu

    Muay Thai


    Common Terms
    Also see the Techniques section​

    Brazilian Jui Jitsu - Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting. It is a derivative of early 20th century Kodokan Judo, which was itself then a recently-developed system (founded in 1882), based on multiple schools (or Ryu) of Japanese jujutsu. It promotes the principle that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend themselves against a bigger, stronger assailant using leverage and proper technique; most notably, by applying joint-locks and chokeholds to defeat them.

    Dirty Boxing - A blend of striking and boxing, especially utilized by greco-roman wrestlers wherein the fighter clinches with their opponent and then throws strikes while maintaining a grasp on the opponent. The term comes from the fact that striking an opponent while in a clinch is illegal (and thereby dirty) in the sport of boxing.

    Greco-Roman Wrestling - Greco-Roman wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world. Along with freestyle, it is one of the two styles of wrestling contested in the Olympic games. Colloquially referred to simply as Greco, this style of wrestling forbids attacks below the waist. As a result, throws are encouraged as the Greco-Roman wrestler cannot avoid being thrown by simply hooking or grabbing his opponent's leg. Otherwise, the sport is similar to freestyle.

    Ground and Pound - Ground-and-pound is a ground fighting tactic consisting of taking an opponent to the ground using a takedown or throw, obtaining a top, or dominant position, and then striking the opponent, primarily with fists and elbows. It is a favored strategy of wrestlers with strong takedowns.

    Lay and Pray - A derogatory term used to describe the strategy wherein a fighter takes their opponent down and controls them but does not significatly attempt to end the fight via strikes or submissions. Simply riding out the clock until the fight ends. This style is most seen in wrestlers who are newer to the sport.

    Muay Thai - Muay Thai is a martial at out of south east asia known as as "The Art of Eight Limbs", as the hands, shins, elbows, and knees are all used extensively in this art. A practitioner of Muay Thai thus has the ability to execute strikes using eight "points of contact," as opposed to "two points" (fists) in Western boxing and "four points" (fists, feet) used in the primarily sport-oriented forms of martial arts. It is used by many as a defacto standup art for MMA.

    Sambo - Sambo is a relatively modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the Soviet Union and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938. It has its roots in Japanese judo and traditional folk styles of wrestling.


    Note: If anything in this FAQ is incorrect or any of the links are dead please let me know. Also any members who wish to add to this thread or create any other sort of compendium of information please let me know.
  2. bradlabo

    bradlabo In Half Guard I Trust

    Maybe add some MFC action since they show it on HDNet?
  3. Clint

    Clint Administrator Staff Member

    I was thinking about adding a generic other orgs on HDNet category, might put them in there

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